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Testing a React app, the blurred line between Unit, integration and E2E

· 8 min read

Have you ever struggled to layout the strategy for testing your React App? Well, you are not alone! Here a few hints from the lessons I learned during my experience testing a React/Redux app with a Phoenix/Elixir backend.

The Blurred Line

Because a React app is built on components, the basic UI units, it is natural to think and organise your tests around components! And so unit testing, in this case, would refer to "component testing", which may be confusing at times, especially when the concept of unit testing is again applied to testing functions such as Redux reducers and action creators or any other JavaScript function in your application.

The other challenge that I often faced was whether to write tests for each component in isolation or write a test for a feature that encapsulates a set of related components. The later would be equivalent to writing what I would call "integration tests".

Finally, one would say "well then you could have just written the tests in a way that resemble the way the application is used"! This approach is commonly recommended in the React community, but it quickly becomes really complex to maintain the layers of separation between unit tests, integration tests and end-to-end tests.

What did I learn?

Given a React/Redux application, here is how I would organise my testing strategy:

Unit Tests

  • In a React app, unit tests will largely apply to testing "helper functions" and not to testing components, as justified in the next section. Helper functions, in this case, would refer to functions that live outside the components and are neither Redux action creators nor reducers. These functions can be used inside components, action creators, reducers or other parts of your application.

  • Writing unit tests for "helper functions" would ensure their signatures and expected outputs are protected against regressions. This would also ensure their use across components or other functions is consistent and as expected.

  • Where possible, each "helper function" must have its own unit test.

  • An example of a unit test would like:

    const sum = require('../../js/sum');

    test('adds 1 + 2 to equal 3', () => {
    expect(sum(1, 2)).toBe(3);
  • Write a thousand of these.

Integration Tests

  • In the context of a React/Redux app, component tests can be thought of as integration tests. This is because React components are built around features such as <Signup />, <Search />, etc. So one React component can be a mix of other components to achieve a UI feature set.

  • To test a component, write an integration test that covers the use of a given component for a given UI feature.

  • If a component being tested dispatches a Redux action, this is the right place to test those actions and their effect on the UI.

  • Pay attention to the concept of feature isolation vs component isolation as it will help you write better integration tests and also easily mock component contexts.

  • A classic example of feature isolation is when you have a <UserList /> component which displays a list of users and has a <button /> to add a new user. Writing a test for <UserList /> would be equivalent to testing a feature.

  • In this example, one would be tempted to test the action of clicking on the <AddUserButton /> and further test the <NewUser /> form... nope! This is where we draw the line! Only test that the <UserList /> renders the mock users in the list and that the <AddUserButton /> is present/enabled. The <UserList /> feature ends there, otherwise you will be sliding into End-to-End testing :)! The <User /> component, although it is invoked by <UserList /> component, it is isolated enough to be tested in its own integration test.

  • Testing components this way would make "context mocking" easier for components.

  • Another important benefit for isolating testing context, as in the example above, is that it will be easier to mock the redux actions and/or api calls using tools such as Jest and Mock Service Worker (or "msw") as explained in the Choosing Tools section.

  • The value of writing integration tests for components, in this way, ensures that a given component renders the UI consistently, given all possible combinations of contexts and interactions. This will also allow you to ensure redux actions invoked by the component are called as expected and with the correct arguments.

  • An example component integration test would look like:

    // ....other imports
    import { setupServer } from 'msw/node';
    // Tell jest to mock the module
    jest.mock('../js/actions/UserActions', () => ({
    saveUser: jest.fn(),

    import { saveUser as mockSaveUser } from '../js/actions/UserActions';
    const server = setupServer(...handlers);
    // Enable API mocking before tests
    beforeAll(() => server.listen());
    // Reset any runtime handlers we may add during the tests
    afterEach(() => server.resetHandlers());
    // Disable API mocking after the tests are done.
    afterAll(() => server.close());
    beforeEach(() => {
    describe('<AddUser/>', () => {

    test('create new user', async () => {
    const {getByPlaceholderText,getByText} = render(<User {...defaultProps} />);
    userEvent.type(getByPlaceholderText('First Name'), 'John');
    userEvent.type(getByPlaceholderText('Last Name'), 'Doe');'Save'));
    firstName: 'John',
    lastName: 'Doe',

  • Write a good couple of these.

End-to-End (e2e) Tests

  • In a React/Redux App, this would mean testing a full flow of a given feature. end-to-end tests would require launching the entire application, including the backend, to run a given test.

  • Note that end-to-end tests are different from integration tests as they require the entire App to run and render the full flow to your component under test.

  • With this understanding, consider writing e2e tests per workflow.

  • An example e2e workflow is the "Viewing and adding users" workflow.

  • The e2e test for this workflow would require a test runner to launch the app, log-in, navigate to the users list page, verify existing users are in the list, click on the Add New User button and confirm that the new user has been added to the list.

  • As you can see, e2e tests have more dependencies and require that you setup your testing environment in way that closely simulates your real application usage.

  • An example e2e test for a React/Redux App with a Phoenix/Elixir backend, using Hound as a test runner looks like this:

defmodule OpenFn.UsersTest do
setup do
user = insert(:user, confirmed_at: DateTime.utc_now())
{:ok, user: user }

@tag :integration
test "Sign-up.", %{user: user} do
form = find_element(:id, "sign_up_form")

|> find_within_element(:id, "first-name")
|> fill_field("John")

|> find_within_element(:id, "last-name")
|> fill_field("Doe")

|> find_within_element(:id, "email")
|> fill_field("")

|> find_within_element(:id, "save-button")
|> click

assert page_title() === ~s/Welcome to my page/
  • Write only a few of these.

Choosing Testing Tools

There are many testing tools out there, but for a typical React/Redux app the following tools should help you accomplish the above tasks:

  1. Jest as test runner for unit and integration tests.
  2. React Testing Library used along with Jest as an "assertion library" for integration tests.
  3. MSW used along with Jest as a REST API mocking library.
  4. Hound as a test runner for e2e tests in Elixir/Phoenix apps. Puppeteer can also be used along with Jest.
    • If Puppeteer is used, it will work seamlessly with Jest but only in headless browser mode. It also reduces on tech stack since you will only need Jest.
    • Hound gives you the ability to run your e2e tests both in headless and browser mode.

Final thoughts and next steps

Testing a React App can be really hard, but worth it! By building Aria-accessible components ahead of time, you save yourself 💰 and good health! A few more hints would be:

  • Build clean, isolated and plugable components for your better testing experience. "God components" can be a pain to test!
  • Using test runners such as Jest, that use emulated web browsers (e.g., jsdom) rather than a real browser come with their own challenges in rendering and traversing complex DOM trees, especially if you are using UI libraries such as MUI.
  • If using Jest for integration tests, I would recommend the components under test have as few dependencies as possible to avoid the complexity involved in mocking http requests and waiting for asynchronous DOM rendering.

What would I do differently? Here are my few thoughts:

  • Organise and document detailed test cases for manual "click testing".
  • Identify and clearly isolate components for integration tests.
  • Do not delete slow tests, instead re-write your component to be faster. Respect the linter's advice, always!
  • Use a commonly supported frontend testing stack such as Jest, Msw, or Puppeteer for easier setup and community support.
  • Setup your test runner to use a test database. It helps, especially during e2e testing.
  • Always write all the three types of tests, whenever applicable.

All this stuff for what?

  • Well because regressions can be much more expensive to your organisation! Writing high quality and thoroughly tested software will save you 💰 and help guarantee a maintainable codebase and a progressive software application.
Still looking for the legend's advice?

Gotcha, here you go...

  1. Swallow your pride and be humble: always do manual testing!
  2. Click test your way through the manual test cases for every new deployment, catching regressions.
  3. Lock in your fixes and new features as unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end tests.

Happy testing,